FINAL EXAMINATION REVIEW:
FINAL EXAMINATION REVIEW
This examination will be formatted like the first two exams. 50 questions. You will need to bring a pencil and scantron.
CHAPTER 23 – POLITICAL CONSOLIDATION IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
The Emergence of Nationalism and Liberalism in Europe:
· What is nationalism?
· Understand the role of nationalism as both a positive and negative force in nineteenth-century Europe
· What problems did nationalism created in different areas of Europe?
· What were the basic goals of European liberals?
· What was liberalism, and what was its meaning in the context of nineteenth-century European politics and economics?
Understand the relationship between liberalism and nationalism and its impact on modern world history
· What efforts were undertaken to Liberalize Early-Nineteenth-Century European Political Structures? Why were efforts to achieve political liberalism more successful in France and Britain than in Russia?
· France had a tumultuous time from 1815 to the mid-1830s. Know the major events and revolutions France faced during this time period.
· What were the results of the revolutions in Russia in 1825 and France in 1830
· What events occurred when Nicholas I ascended the throne in Russia? What was the “Decembrist Revolt” of 1825? How did it shape Russian history?
· Know the process of political liberalization in Britain and the importance of the Great Reform Bill. How did Great Britain try to maintain the conservative order throughout the period from 1815 to 1832? What were the Corn Laws and the Peterloo Incident? What was the “Great Reform” of 1832?
· What were the major issues facing Great Britain after 1860? How did the solutions Britain found to these problems contribute to the increase in Democracy in Great Britain? Be able to discuss the reform measures of Gladestone and Disraeli. Know what the Irish question was and how it was dealt with in Britain in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
· 1848 was a year of revolution across Europe. What were the general causes of these upheavals? Know the issues involved in the French, Italian, Austrian and German Revolutions. Also be able to compare and contrast these revolutions with each other. What were their unique qualities? How did Nationalism, Liberalism and Conservatism play out in these revolutions? Why did they all ultimately fail?
· Know the impact of the European revolutions of 1848 on the progress of political liberalism in the later nineteenth century
Testing the New American Republic:
· What were the causes of the American Civil War?
· Know the impact of the institution of slavery on American politics in the nineteenth century
· Understand the results of the American Civil War on the social and economic systems in the United States
The Canadian Experience:
· How did Canada achieve united self-government?
· What was the process by which Canada achieved self-government?
· Understand the differences between Canada and the United States in the mid-nineteenth century
Midcentury Political Consolidation in Europe:
· What were the steps that led to Italian and German unification?
· Be able to discuss the unification of Italy in the late 1850s and early 1860s.
· Be able to discuss the dominance of Prussia and Bismarck and the role both played in the unification of Germany in the 1860s, culminating with the proclamation of the German Empire in 1871.
· What were the causes and results of the Crimean War? Why was the Crimean War such a pivotal event? How did that set the international stage for the changed that occurred in Europe between 1850 and 1900.
· Know the process of national unification in Italy and Germany
Unrest of Nationalities in Eastern Europe:
· How did nationalism affect the Habsburg Empire?
· Explain the national problems faced by the Habsburg (Austrian) Empire
· Austria also went through change after its loss to Prussia. How did the "Dual Monarchy" come into being? Did this solve Austria’s problems or create more? What is meant by the term Ausgleich (1867), and what is its significance?
· Racial Theory and Anti-Semitism
· How did racial theory influence anti-Semitism?
· Define anti-Semitism, and explain its origins
· Explain the impact of anti-Semitism on nineteenth-century European culture
Compromise of 1867
William Lloyd Garrison
Great Reform Bill
CHAPTER 24 - NORTHERN TRANSATLANTIC ECONOMY AND SOCIETY, 1815–1914
European Factory Workers and Urban Artisans:
· Know how the Industrial Revolution spread across the mainland of Europe. In what ways did the Railroad facilitate the Industrial Revolution in Europe
· Be able to describe the ways in which the Industrial Revolution changed European Society. How did life change? What were some of the demographic changes discussed in the text as well as in class?
· Know the trends in population and demographics during the latter decades of the 19th Century. What led to these demographic trends?
· What is proletarianization? Know the meaning of the term proletarianization as it applied to later-nineteenth-century workers and businesses
· Know the ways in which changes in markets affected artisans and craft organizations
· The working class Proletariat developed during this time. Know what conditions were like among the working classes? i.e. their lifestyle, values, mores, living conditions, working conditions. How were women and children affected by the development of the Proletariat/Industrial Society?
· Understand what led to the rise in crime and efforts to combat this.
· What was the Middle Class (Bourgeoisie)? Be able to describe their lifestyles, values, mores and ideals.
· What role did “Classical Economics” play in the development of European society between 1832 and 1850? Who were some of the Classical Economic philosophers and what did they advocate? How and why was the Middle Class able to use Classical Economics to their justification?
Nineteenth-Century European Women:
· What social and legal disabilities did European women confront in the nineteenth century?
· Understand the impact of the industrial economy on the home and family lives of women
· What were the legal and social disabilities that affected most nineteenth-century European women?
· What issues did women face during the late 19th Century? What gains did women make? What were the differences between working class women and middle class women?
· Understand the rise of a political feminist movement in response to women’s situation.
· How did emancipation affect Jewish life in Europe outside of Russia?
· Know the process of Jewish emancipation in nineteenth-century Europe
· Understand the threats to their improved status that Jews began to face from the 1870s onward
European Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I:
· Why did Marxism become so influential among European socialists?
· Why did European workers turned to trade unions and political participation after the Revolutions of 1848?
· Socialism arose as a response to the rise of the Industrial Society and Classical Economic theory. Know the variations of Socialism including the one discussed in your text? i.e. Utopian Socialism, Anarchism and Marxism
· What were the main points of Marxist socialism?
· What was the impact of socialism in British and Germany politics?
· Know the development of the Bolshevik party in Russia
North America and the New Industrial Economy:
· How did industrialization in the United States differ from industrialization in Europe?
· What was the importance of European investment and immigration in North America’s industrial economy?
· Know the impact of labor unions and the limited appeal of socialism in American labor
· Understand what led to the rise of the Progressive Movement as a response to American political and economic problems
The Emergence of Modern European Thought:
· Who were some of the intellectuals at the forefront of modern European thought?
· What were the basic ideas promoted by Charles Darwin and their interpretations and impact?
· Understand the major advances in late-nineteenth-century physics
· What were Freud’s contributions to psychiatry?
· Know Nietzsche and the Übermensch.
Islam and Late-Nineteenth-Century European Thought:
· What were some influential views on the relationship between Islam and the West?
· What difficulties did European thinkers had in understanding Islam and its role in the modern world?
· What were the Islamic responses to Western criticism of Islam?
The Communist Manifesto
What Is to Be Done?
Chapter 25: Latin America: Independence to 1940s
Independence Without Revolution:
- How did the absence of a social revolution affect Latin America after independence?
- What did and did not change in Latin America after independence?
- Understand the sociopolitical power of the elite
- Understand the economic conditions that have historically plagued Latin America
- Know the importance of liberalism in Latin American thought
Economy of Dependence:
- What was the economy of dependence?
- Know the central role of raw material exports in the Latin American economy
- Understand the role of foreign investment
- Look over the course of industrialization in Latin America
Search for Political Stability:
- Who were the caudillos?
- What were the lingering effects of colonial monarchies
- Understand the power of the caudillos
Three National Histories—Argentina, Mexico and Brazil:
- Why are the histories of Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil so different in spite of these nations’ commonalities?
- Know the histories of Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil from independence to the 1940s
- What were the themes that emerge in comparing and contrasting these national histories
“Order and Progress”
Antonio López de Santa Anna