EXAMINATION 2 REVIEW:
The Ottoman Empire and the East Mediterranean World:
· Why did the Ottoman Empire find it increasingly difficult to compete with European powers?
· Know the origins and the history of the Ottoman Empire. Who were some of the important rulers of the Ottoman Empire? What did the Ottomans conquer? What made them so powerful? What contributed to their decline?
· Describe the structure of the Ottoman state
· Describe Ottoman culture
The Safavid Empire and the West Asian World:
· What role did Shi’ite ideology play in the Safavid Empire?
· Know what led to the rise and decline of the Safavid dynasty. Who were some of the important Safavid rulers and what did they accomplish? How did relations with their neighbors affect them? What was the impact of the Europeans on Safavid culture and economy?
· What was the impact of the Safavids on future Iranian history
· Know the important aspects of Safavid culture
· What role did religious intolerance play in the decline of the Mughal Empire?
· Summarize the chronology of Mughal leadership
· Discuss rivals to Mughal leadership in India
· Summarize developments in Indian religion during this period
Also, be sure to look over the following:
Central Asia: Islamization in the Post-Timur Era:
· What were the most important Islamic states in central and southern Asia?
· What were the factors that led to the isolation of the Islamic population in Central Asia
· Understand the global effects of the Shi’ite-Sunni rift
Power Shifts in the Southern Oceans:
· How did the arrival of Europeans affect maritime trade in Southeast Asia?
· Be familiar with the chronology of dominant traders in the southern seas
· What was the role of Muslim traders and Islamic faith in southern-seas cultures?
Shah Abbas I
Abode of Islam
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THOUGHT:
- What brought about the "Scientific Revolution"?
- Who were the major figures in the Scientific Revolution and what did the contribute to scientific progress?
- Understand the principles behind Bacon's and Descartes' approaches to scientific research
- Sir Isaac Newton: What did he contribute to the Scientific Revolution?
- What role did "Rational" play in science and philosophy?--How did views of God and the Universe change?
- Who were the major political thinkers and literary figures of the time? How were they affected by "rational thought"?
- What brought about the "Witch-Hunts" and how did that compare to the scientific revolution? How did the Witch-Hunts come to an end.
- What was the Enlightenment? How was it different than from past philosophical movements? Where was the stress of the Enlightened thought?
- What were the antecedents of the Enlightenment? What role did Newton and Locke play in the development of the Enlightenment?
- The Enlightenment movement centered around Paris. What was going on in Paris/France that facilitated the Enlightenment movement?
- What is meant by the term Philosophes? What did the Philosophes advocate?
- Know the works of Voltaire, Montesqueiu, Diderot and Rousseau. How did their works affect the philosophy of governments? Be able to compare and contrast their works. Did they build on each other or were they opposed to each other?
- Understand "Deism". How did the Philosophes feel about religious questions? Why would they chose a religious philosophy such as Deism? How did they explain the workings of God? Who were the proponents of Deism? How do the works of Lessing, Voltaire and Hume fit into the discussion of Deism? Why was tolerance an important aspect of Deism?
- Know the economic theory advocated by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations. How does this differ from Mercantilism? What is the "Invisible Hand" that was touted by Smith. Did it alleviate poverty?
- What was the role of women in the Enlightenment? How did they facilitate the spread of Enlightened ideas?
- Know what the term "Enlightened Absolutism" means. Your text refers to three monarchs who were "enlightened". These include Frederick the Great of Prussia, Joseph II of Austria and Catherine II (the Great) of Russia. In what ways were these monarchs enlightened. What ways were they not enlightened. Do you think they were enlightened or not?
- The end of the 18th century saw some changes in Eastern Europe. These include the Partition of Poland. Understand why Poland was dismembered and what the results were.
Frederick the Great of Prussia
Joseph II of Austria
Catherine the Great of Russia
CHAPTER 22 – REVOLUTIONS IN THE TRANSATLANTIC WORLD
Revolution in the British Colonies in North America:
· What was radical about the American Revolution?
· Know the problems Britain faced after the Treaty of Paris in 1763
· Understand the British actions and American responses that created increasing tensions between Britain and its North American colonies
· Know how a debate over British policies escalated into open war
· What were the results of the American Revolution in the wider context of European affairs before and after 1776?
Revolution in France:
· How did the French Revolution and Napoleon transform France’s government and society?
· What crisis did the French monarch face in 1789? What were the underlying conditions? What were the immediate causes?
· Why did Louis XVI convene the Estates General? What issues did the Delegate have to solve before they could do anything? What groups made up the Estates General?
· Know the main phases of the French Revolution.
· What led to the formation of the National Assembly? Who were the leaders? What did this body seek?
· What led to the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens? Why is this document important?
· How did the Revolution reconstruct society in France? Look for political, social, ecclesiastic, etc. Who were the Jacobins, Girondins, Mountain?
· What issues led to France's involvement in foreign wars in 1792? How did the Declaration of Pillnitz tie into this? What were the results of this involvement in foreign wars?
· Why did the Revolution become radical in 1792? How did the monarchy end? What role did the sans-culottes play in the radicalization process? How did the Jacobins came to power in 1792 and how did their rule affected France and Europe
· What was the “Republic or Virtue” and how was it governed? What role did the “Committee of Public Safety” play? What was responsible for the "Reign of Terror"
· Know what the Thermidorian Reaction was. What were the "Bands of Jesus"? What was the Directory and was it stable and successful?
The Napoleonic Era:
· How did Napoleon come to power in France in 1799?
· Know what Napoleon's domestic reforms entailed? i.e. Code Napoleon, Concordat with the Catholic Church, Educational Reforms, and Administrative Reforms.
· How does Napoleon go about building a French Empire? What was the circumstances surrounding Napoleon's coronation as Emperor of France?
· What was the Continental System? Why did Napoleon impose it upon Europe? How did it affect Napoleon's overall strategy? How did it affect the rest of Europe.
· Why did Napoleon invade Spain in 1808 and why was this a failure?
· Why did Napoleon invade Russia in 1812 and why was this a failure?
· How was Napoleon defeated in 1814 and again in 1815? What were the "100 Days?"
· What was the Congress of Vienna? What issues were the delegates trying to solve? Who were the main delegates? What were the attitudes of the delegates? How was Europe reorganized? Was it a true Restoration? What was the concept of “Legitimacy” and how was it interpreted? How were the delegates at Vienna able to create a system that would keep peace in Europe for 99 years? What is the significance of the Congress of Vienna in settling the problems created by the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.
Wars of Independence in Latin America:
· Why did Latin American nations reject Spanish and Portuguese rule?
· How did European events prepare the ground for Latin American independence?
· Know the major features of the Latin American wars of Independence? Who were the main leaders and what did they accomplish?
· Know the roles of San Martín and Bolívar in leading independence movements.
· Understand how the Brazilian path to independence differed from that of other Latin American states.
Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy:
· Why did slavery become unacceptable in Western society?
· Know the factors that led to the abolition of slavery in the Americas by the 1880s.
· What was the role of religious opposition in the abolition of slavery?
· Understand why, despite the ending of the slave trade, slavery persisted in areas of the Americas such as the United States, Cuba, and Brazil
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
José de San Martín
Battle of Waterloo
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
The Hundred Days
Tennis Court Oath
Reign of Terror
Congress of Vienna
levée en masse