EXAMINATION 2 REVIEW:
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THOUGHT:
- What brought about the "Scientific Revolution"?
- Who were the major figures in the Scientific Revolution and what did the contribute to scientific progress?
- Understand the principles behind Bacon's and Descartes' approaches to scientific research
- Sir Isaac Newton: What did he contribute to the Scientific Revolution?
- What role did "Rational" play in science and philosophy?--How did views of God and the Universe change?
- Who were the major political thinkers and literary figures of the time? How were they affected by "rational thought"?
- What brought about the "Witch-Hunts" and how did that compare to the scientific revolution? How did the Witch-Hunts come to an end.
- What was the Enlightenment? How was it different than from past philosophical movements? Where was the stress of the Enlightened thought?
- What were the antecedents of the Enlightenment? What role did Newton and Locke play in the development of the Enlightenment?
- The Enlightenment movement centered around Paris. What was going on in Paris/France that facilitated the Enlightenment movement?
- What is meant by the term Philosophes? What did the Philosophes advocate?
- Know the works of Voltaire, Montesqueiu, Diderot and Rousseau. How did their works affect the philosophy of governments? Be able to compare and contrast their works. Did they build on each other or were they opposed to each other?
- Understand "Deism". How did the Philosophes feel about religious questions? Why would they chose a religious philosophy such as Deism? How did they explain the workings of God? Who were the proponents of Deism? How do the works of Lessing, Voltaire and Hume fit into the discussion of Deism? Why was tolerance an important aspect of Deism?
- Know the economic theory advocated by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations. How does this differ from Mercantilism? What is the "Invisible Hand" that was touted by Smith. Did it alleviate poverty?
- What was the role of women in the Enlightenment? How did they facilitate the spread of Enlightened ideas?
- Know what the term "Enlightened Absolutism" means. Your text refers to three monarchs who were "enlightened". These include Frederick the Great of Prussia, Joseph II of Austria and Catherine II (the Great) of Russia. In what ways were these monarchs enlightened. What ways were they not enlightened. Do you think they were enlightened or not?
- The end of the 18th century saw some changes in Eastern Europe. These include the Partition of Poland. Understand why Poland was dismembered and what the results were.
Frederick the Great of Prussia
Joseph II of Austria
Catherine the Great of Russia
CHAPTER 22 – REVOLUTIONS IN THE TRANSATLANTIC WORLD
Revolution in the British Colonies in North America:
- What was radical about the American Revolution?
- Know the problems Britain faced after the Treaty of Paris in 1763
- Understand the British actions and American responses that created increasing tensions between Britain and its North American colonies
- Know how a debate over British policies escalated into open war
- What were the results of the American Revolution in the wider context of European affairs before and after 1776?
Revolution in France:
- How did the French Revolution and Napoleon transform France’s government and society?
- What crisis did the French monarch face in 1789? What were the underlying conditions? What were the immediate causes?
- Why did Louis XVI convene the Estates General? What issues did the Delegate have to solve before they could do anything? What groups made up the Estates General?
- Know the main phases of the French Revolution.
- What led to the formation of the National Assembly? Who were the leaders? What did this body seek?
- What led to the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens? Why is this document important?
- How did the Revolution reconstruct society in France? Look for political, social, ecclesiastic, etc. Who were the Jacobins, Girondins, Mountain?
- What issues led to France's involvement in foreign wars in 1792? How did the
- Declaration of Pillnitz tie into this? What were the results of this involvement in foreign wars?
- Why did the Revolution become radical in 1792? How did the monarchy end? What role did the sans-culottes play in the radicalization process? How did the Jacobins came to power in 1792 and how did their rule affected France and Europe
- What was the “Republic or Virtue” and how was it governed? What role did the “Committee of Public Safety” play? What was responsible for the "Reign of Terror"
- Know what the Thermidorian Reaction was. What were the "Bands of Jesus"? What was the Directory and was it stable and successful?
The Napoleonic Era:
- How did Napoleon come to power in France in 1799?
- Know what Napoleon's domestic reforms entailed? i.e. Code Napoleon, Concordat with the Catholic Church, Educational Reforms, and Administrative Reforms.
- How does Napoleon go about building a French Empire? What was the circumstances surrounding Napoleon's coronation as Emperor of France?
- What was the Continental System? Why did Napoleon impose it upon Europe? How did it affect Napoleon's overall strategy? How did it affect the rest of Europe.
- Why did Napoleon invade Spain in 1808 and why was this a failure?
- Why did Napoleon invade Russia in 1812 and why was this a failure?
- How was Napoleon defeated in 1814 and again in 1815? What were the "100 Days?"
- What was the Congress of Vienna? What issues were the delegates trying to solve? Who were the main delegates? What were the attitudes of the delegates? How was Europe reorganized? Was it a true Restoration? What was the concept of “Legitimacy” and how was it interpreted? How were the delegates at Vienna able to create a system that would keep peace in Europe for 99 years? What is the significance of the Congress of Vienna in settling the problems created by the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.
Wars of Independence in Latin America:
- Why did Latin American nations reject Spanish and Portuguese rule?
- How did European events prepare the ground for Latin American independence?
- Know the major features of the Latin American wars of Independence? Who were the main leaders and what did they accomplish?
- Know the roles of San Martín and Bolívar in leading independence movements.
- Understand how the Brazilian path to independence differed from that of other Latin American states.
Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy:
- Why did slavery become unacceptable in Western society?
- Know the factors that led to the abolition of slavery in the Americas by the 1880s.
- What was the role of religious opposition in the abolition of slavery?
- Understand why, despite the ending of the slave trade, slavery persisted in areas of the Americas such as the United States, Cuba, and Brazil
- Toussaint L’Ouverture
- Great Fear
- Stamp Act
- Simón Bolívar
- Civil Constitution of the Clergy
- José de San Martín
- Napoleonic Code
- Battle of Waterloo
- Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
- The Hundred Days
- Boston Massacre
- Tennis Court Oath
- Reign of Terror
- Continental System
- Thermidorean Reaction
- Congress of Vienna
- levée en masse
- Third Estate
CHAPTER 23 – POLITICAL CONSOLIDATION IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
The Emergence of Nationalism and Liberalism in Europe:
- What is nationalism?
- Understand the role of nationalism as both a positive and negative force in nineteenth-century Europe
- What problems did nationalism created in different areas of Europe?
- What were the basic goals of European liberals?
- What was liberalism, and what was its meaning in the context of nineteenth-century European politics and economics?
- Understand the relationship between liberalism and nationalism and its impact on modern world history
- What efforts were undertaken to Liberalize Early-Nineteenth-Century European Political Structures? Why were efforts to achieve political liberalism more successful in France and Britain than in Russia?
- France had a tumultuous time from 1815 to the mid-1830s. Know the major events and revolutions France faced during this time period.
- What were the results of the revolutions in Russia in 1825 and France in 1830
- What events occurred when Nicholas I ascended the throne in Russia? What was the “Decembrist Revolt” of 1825? How did it shape Russian history?
- Know the process of political liberalization in Britain and the importance of the Great Reform Bill. How did Great Britain try to maintain the conservative order throughout the period from 1815 to 1832? What were the Corn Laws and the Peterloo Incident? What was the “Great Reform” of 1832?
- What were the major issues facing Great Britain after 1860? How did the solutions Britain found to these problems contribute to the increase in Democracy in Great Britain? Be able to discuss the reform measures of Gladestone and Disraeli. Know what the Irish question was and how it was dealt with in Britain in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- 1848 was a year of revolution across Europe. What were the general causes of these upheavals? Know the issues involved in the French, Italian, Austrian and German Revolutions. Also be able to compare and contrast these revolutions with each other. What were their unique qualities? How did Nationalism, Liberalism and Conservatism play out in these revolutions? Why did they all ultimately fail?
- Know the impact of the European revolutions of 1848 on the progress of political liberalism in the later nineteenth century
Testing the New American Republic:
- What were the causes of the American Civil War?
- Know the impact of the institution of slavery on American politics in the nineteenth century
- Understand the results of the American Civil War on the social and economic systems in the United States
The Canadian Experience:
- How did Canada achieve united self-government?
- What was the process by which Canada achieved self-government?
- Understand the differences between Canada and the United States in the mid-nineteenth century
Midcentury Political Consolidation in Europe:
- What were the steps that led to Italian and German unification?
- Be able to discuss the unification of Italy in the late 1850s and early 1860s.
- Be able to discuss the dominance of Prussia and Bismarck and the role both played in the unification of Germany in the 1860s, culminating with the proclamation of the German Empire in 1871.
- What were the causes and results of the Crimean War? Why was the Crimean War such a pivotal event? How did that set the international stage for the changed that occurred in Europe between 1850 and 1900.
- Know the process of national unification in Italy and Germany
Unrest of Nationalities in Eastern Europe:
- How did nationalism affect the Habsburg Empire?
- Explain the national problems faced by the Habsburg (Austrian) Empire
- Austria also went through change after its loss to Prussia. How did the "Dual Monarchy" come into being? Did this solve Austria’s problems or create more? What is meant by the term Ausgleich (1867), and what is its significance?
- Racial Theory and Anti-Semitism
- How did racial theory influence anti-Semitism?
- Define anti-Semitism, and explain its origins
- Explain the impact of anti-Semitism on nineteenth-century European culture
- Louis Philippe
- Four Ordinances
- Louis Napoleon
- “rotten” boroughs
- Decembrist Revolt
- Nicholas I
- July Monarchy
- Compromise of 1867
- Home Rule
- William Lloyd Garrison
- Camillo Cavour
- Great Reform Bill